Tourism India as a tourist destination
India with a land mass of about 3.3 million sq. Kms. and a population of over 1.1 billion is the 7th largest and the 2nd most populous country in the world.
The people of India are known for their traditions of hospitality to foreigners. They have varied life styles, cultural heritage and colourful fairs and festivals which make India a unique tourist destination.
India is also a country of diverse tourist attractions. It offers enormous diversity in topography, natural resources and climate. It is also a fascinating kaleidoscope of races, languages, religions, customs and traditions. India is thus a tourist destination for all travellers in all seasons.
India abounds in attractive and well-preserved historical sites, ancient monuments of architectural grandeur and not-so-ancient mosques/durgahs, churches and places of worship of other diverse faiths.
Taj Mahal at Agra with a romantic story behind it is known the world over for its treasure of architecture. Besides Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Sikandra, Rambagh and the Imperial ruins of the Mughal city at Fatehpur Sikri are some of the finest examples of architecture combining both Hindu and Muslim elements.
Ajanta and Ellora Cave temples with spectacular cave paintings contain some of the worlds most exquisite sculpture. Some of the other places of cultural interest are the Elephanta Caves in Maharashtra , The Konark Sun Temple and the Jagannath Temple in Orissa, the Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh, Golden temple at Amritsar in Punjab, Temples of Mamallapuram and Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu, monuments in Karnatka etc.
India is also known for some of its fine beaches like Goa, Mamallapuram, Kovalam, Pondicherry, Puri-Konark etc. In addition island tourism has been developed at Andaman/Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands.
All across the country are wildlife sanctuaries whose areas extend over several thousands of square kilometres, where wildlife can be observed in their natural surroundings. Each sanctuary supports several species of wildlife, being well known for one particular species. In some cases, there are rare or even endangered species. Thus, the Gir Forest in Gujarat is the only surviving home of the Asian lion, Manas and Kaziranga in Assam have a significant population of one horned rhinos, Periyar in Kerela is best known for wild elephant viewing. Thamin deer at Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur, Hangul or Kashmir stag at Dachigam, Srinagar , and blackbuck at Velavadhar in Gujarat are the only homes of these species.
Indias vast geographical diversity provides a wealth of outdoors adventure. All tastes are catered for - from the gentlest to the fast-paced, and there is something for every level of competence - the beginner and the expert. Not only does India have an immense variety of outdoor thrills, but prices here are extremely low by international standards.
The major adventure tourism activities in India are trekking and skiing in Himalayas, river running in Gangas, water skiing in Goa, Trout fishing in Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, Heliskiing in Himachal Pradesh, wind surfing, scuba diving and yatching in Andamans & Lakshadweep islands etc.
India is a land of fairs and festivals with atleast one fair in each day of the year. These fairs and festivals add colour to the social life of Indian people. Some of the important fairs and festivals are Pushkar fair in Rajasthan, Crafts Mela at Surajkund, Holi in North India, Pongal in Tamilnadu, Onam in Kerela, Baisaki in Punjab, Bihu in Assam, Dance festivals at Khajuraho and Mamallapuram etc.
India has a rich cultural heritage with several forms of art and handicrafts. Bharatnatyam, Odissi, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Mohiniattam are some of the most popular forms of classical dances which have their origins in various States across the country. Every dance form has a precise vocabulary of emotions - love, yearning, sorrow etc. - and these are displayed by gestures that involve the body, arms, fingers face and eyes.
India has a treasure trove of handicrafts for any discerning shopper, in truly remarkable variety of styles and prices. In India, the shopping experience runs the gamut of multi-storeyed, air-conditioned stores selling a hand-picked assortment of crafts from every corner of the country, to whole streets of shops selling speciality goods, in local fairs, where stalls, set up overnight, stock a variety of exotica. Infact, India is a unique shopping plaza for the people of Russia.
Over the years, India has developed world standard accommodation infrastructure for entertaining the visitors. There are about 60,000 classified hotel rooms in India and about 35,000 rooms are under construction. These hotel rooms scattered in various cities are of varying price range. Some of the major hotel chains in India are the Oberois, Taj Group of Hotels, Welcome Group of Hotels and India Tourism Development Corporation Hotels. Why Visit India?Beautiful
From the highest peaks in the Himalayas to the serene beaches of Goa, India is known for its beautiful locales. India has wondrous locations for team building exercises or corporate workshops. You can enjoy the awe-inspiring scenery while you indulge in some serious business.Vibrant
In a country as diverse and complex as India, it is not surprising to find that people here reflect the rich glories of the past, the culture, traditions and values relative to geographic locations and the numerous distinctive manners, habits and food that will always remain truly Indian. All these factors add up to rich and vibrant culture of India.Delicious
Food in India is wide ranging in variety, taste and flavour. Being so diverse geographically, each region has its own cuisine and style of preparation. Indian cuisine, renowned for its exotic gravies seems complicated for any newcomer. The Mughlai cuisine of North differs sharply from the preparations of the south. The Wazwan style of Kashmir is luxurious but the same can be said about Bengal's Macher Jhol, Rajasthan's Dal Bati, Uttar Pradesh's Kebabs and Punjab's Sarson Ka Saag and Makki di Roti. In India, recipes are handed down from generation to generation. So the next time you are in India you are assured of a vast selection on your menu.Technology
India has always been at the forefront of innovation. With Indian companies venturing out into newer markets there has been sudden surge of technological advancements in every possible field. From hi-tech IT Parks to state-of-the-art exhibition centres, India has it all. Today India boasts of various venues in different states that are well-equipped with the latest paraphernalia and skilled workers. Culinary tour of India
The food available in India is as diverse as its culture, its racial structure, its geography and its climate. The essence of good Indian cooking revolves around the appropriate use of aromatic spices. The skill lies in the subtle blending of a variety of spices to enhance rather than overwhelm the basic flavor of a particular dish. These spices are also used as appetisers and digestives.
Besides spices, the other main ingredients of Indian cooking and Indian meals are milk products like ghee (clarified butter)used as a cooking medium and yoghurt or dahi. Lentils (legumes) or dals are also common across the country and regional preferences and availability determine the actual use in a particular area. Vegetables naturally differ across regions and with seasons. The style of cooking vegetables is dependent upon the main dish or cereal with which they are served. Whereas the Sarson ka saag (sauteed mustard leaves) is a perfect complement for the Makke ki Roti (maize bread) eaten in Punjab, the sambhar (lentil) and rice of Tamil Nadu taste best eaten with deep-fried vegetables.
Although a number of religions exist in India, the two main cultures that have influenced Indian cooking and food habits are the Hindu and the Muslim traditions. Each new wave of settlers brought with them their own culinary practices. However, over time they adopted a lot of specialities and cooking methods from the Indian cuisine and blended the two to perfection. The Portuguese, the Persians and the British made important contributions to the Indian culinary scene. It was the British who started the commercial cultivation of tea in India.
The Hindu vegetarian tradition is widespread in India, although many Hindus eat meat and fish now. The Muslim tradition is most evident in the cooking of meats. Mughlai food, kababs, rich kormas (curries) and nargisi koftas (meat-balls), the biryani (a layered rice and meat preparation), rogan josh, and preparations from the clay oven or tandoor like tandoori rotis and tandoori chicken are all important contributions made by the Muslim settlers in India. NORTHERN INDIA
A typical North-Indian meal would consist of chapatis or rotis (unleavened bread baked on a griddle) or parathas (unleavened bread fried on a griddle), rice and an assortment of accessories like dals, fried vegetables, curries, yoghurt, chutney, and pickles. For dessert one could choose from the wide array of sweetmeats from Bengal like rasagulla, sandesh, rasamalai and gulab-jamuns. North Indian desserts are very similar in taste as they are derived from a milk pudding or rice base and are usually soaked in syrup. Kheer, a form of rice pudding, shahi tukra or bread pudding and kulfi, a nutty ice-cream are other common northern desserts. SOUTHERN INDIA
South Indian food is largely non-greasy, roasted and steamed. Rice is the staple diet and forms the basis of every meal. It is usually served with sambhar, rasam (a thin soup), dry and curried vegetables and a curd preparation called pachadi. Coconut is an important ingredient in all South Indian food. The South Indian fast food such as dosa (rice pancakes), idli (steamed rice cakes) and vada, which is made of fermented rice and dal, are now popular throughout the country. The popular dishes from Kerala are appams (a rice pancake) and thick stews. Desserts from the south include the Mysore pak and the creamy payasum. EASTERN INDIA
The cuisine of Eastern India revolves primarily around fish, vegetables and rice. It is lighter than north Indian food as little fat is used in the cooking, which relies mainly on stir-frying, boiling and steaming. The speciality in this region is in the use of mustard and subtly-flavoured spices. The region is famed for its variety of fish recipes, desserts and confectionery. The festive food owes a great deal to Muslim tradition. A meal is eaten in courses, with a progression of flavour from mild to strong in the universal order of vegetables, fish, poultry and/or meat. Meat dishes are followed by a sweet-sour chutney, crisp fried papad, yoghurt and desserts. WESTERN INDIA
The food of Western India is incredibly varied, reflecting the diverse influences on its history. Each state from Rajasthan to Maharashtra has distinctive culinary traditions. Rajasthan has developed a complex cuisine relatively evenly balanced between Muslim and Hindu vegetarian and non-vegetarian components, with an unique emphasis on game dishes. Gujarat has a largely vegetarian population belonging mainly to the Jain faith. Its food is based, therefore, on pulses, milk products and vegetables, accompanied by a variety of breads. A meal begins with a sweet appetiser. Maharashtra blends of elements from northern and southern India. Mumbai and Goa both have evolved a cosmopolitan table owing to the variety of international influnces on their culture. Mumbai calls its own the distinctive Zoroastrian tradition of its Parsi community as well as the Irani Muslim strain. It also has a highly developed and popular fast-food tradition which is both nutritious and tasty. Goan food blends Portuguese tradition with the food habits of the Konkan coast.
An Indian meal is usually rounded off with the paan or betel leaf which holds an assortment of digestive spices like lime paste, aniseed, cloves, areca nut, and cardamom.
Indian drinks are generally non-alcoholic fruit juice or yoghurt based cocktails, called "sharbat" or "lassi" respectively. Ingredients usually added include mint, almonds, pistachios, cashews, cardamom, saffron and a large variety of aromatic herbs and spices. Indigenous alcoholic drinks include coconut palm toddy from south and eastern India and the Goan liquor "Feni" based on coconut palm juice or cashew nut. There are also mild fruit wines and an unique, fiery liqueur made from the betel leaf. India has recently begun making and marketing excellent white and sparkling wines based on muscatel and pinot noir grapes grown in western and southern India. Most of the output is exported. India also makes all varieties of spirits and beer of European invention.
In this culinary tour of India, we hope to introduce you to the culinary tradition of the States and Union Territories of each of the four great regions of India, guide you step by step through the preparation of an authentic meal from each state, list as many authentic and tested recipes as possible and, finally, give pointers on combining dishes from various regions in a table that truly reflects the infinite diversity of the Indian kitchen. All good tours take time to develop, so this page will be continually under construction until the journey is complete. Bon appetite! INGREDIENTS
Although Indian cuisine uses an extensive variety of herbs, spices and ingredients, most recipes can be made with a core group of commodities, listed below. Where fresh ingredients are not available, dry powders can usually be substituted. THE BASIC INDIAN SPICE RACK
Corianderseed Paprika powder
Coconut (fresh grated or desiccated powder) Bay Leaf-dried
Black mustardseed Fennel seed
Fenugreek seed Thyme
Cardamom -small green Cardamom - black
Cinnamon -sticks Cloves
Ginger-fresh or powdered Garlic - fresh or flakes
Curry Leaves (used in south India) Fresh coriander leaf
Garam Masala - a combination of cloves, cardamom, cinnamon and black pepper that can be used whole or in powdered form.
Basmati Rice - a long-grain aromatic rice grown only in the foothills of northern India that is indispensable for Indian rice dishes.
Ghee - a cooking fat made by reheating pure, unsalted butter or whipped full-cream natural yoghurt until the clear fat separates from the residual sediment. THE NEXT STAGE
Fresh mint leaf Gram Flour
Tamarind paste Brown mustardseed
Poppyseed Caraway seeds
"Panch Phoran" (five-spice mix) - one teaspoon of a mixture of equal amounts of seeds of fenugreek, nigella, celery, mustard and fennel. Used in eastern India.
Mustard oil - indispensable for fish recipes of eastern India.
Coconut Oil - recommended for recipes from southern India.